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Sustainable biogas production in municipal wastewater

 · Gas treatment and conversion The raw biogas needs to be dried and hydrogen sulphide and other trace substances removed in order to obtain a good combustible 1) Energy generated as gross gas production 2) Energy generated as electricity heat vehicle fuel or flared (excluding efficiency losses) 3) Electricity generation only (excluding

The Significance of Carbon 14 in Graphite Reactor

 · termediate Level Waste volumes or treatment to reduce activity enabling history. If the modelling is for a complete reactor system (graphite core and coolant gas) the modelling of C-14 production in reactor gas coolants is rela-tively successful since their chemical composition is known. The contribution to C-14 production in graphite

About Graphite Next Source

World production of graphite is about 1.1 million tonnes per year (Mtpy) which is almost as large as the nickel market (1.3 Mtpy) far larger than the markets for magnesium (429 Mtpy) molybdenum (180 Mtpy) or tungsten (55 Mtpy) and more than 50 times the size of the lithium or rare earth markets.

Removal of 14C from Irradiated Graphite for Graphite

 · Approximately 250 000 tonnes of irradiated graphite waste exists worldwide and that quantity is expected to increase with decommissioning of Generation II reactors and deployment of Generation IV gas-cooled graphite moderated reactors. This situation indicates the need for a graphite waste management strategy.

Removal of 14C from Irradiated Graphite for Graphite

 · Approximately 250 000 tonnes of irradiated graphite waste exists worldwide and that quantity is expected to increase with decommissioning of Generation II reactors and deployment of Generation IV gas-cooled graphite moderated reactors. This situation indicates the need for a graphite waste

O Nuclear Graphite Waste Management

 · graphite components Wigner energy radioactive graphite waste treatment conditioning interim storage and long term disposal options. The purpose of the seminar was to bring together the specialists dealing with various aspects of radioactive graphite waste management to exchange and review information on the

Treatment and Disposal of Irradiated Graphite and Other

The waste issue is regarded as "the Achilles Heel for nuclear fission" by the Euratom Scientific and Technical Committee and has not been well reflected and managed in earlier generations of gas-cooled reactors (Magnox AGR UNGG HTR) and in other graphite-moderated reactors such as RBMK or in Materials Test Reactors (MTR) as well as in

Treatment of a forging industry graphite-rich wastewater

 · Recent studies have shown great potential of usage of materials or waste containing graphite 13-17 and that shall be approached in this article. It is worth highlighting that literature on the treatment of effluents of forging operations is still scarce. Likewise few studies about graphite waste are described.

Graphite Whiskers Derived from Waste Coffee Grounds

Graphite whiskers (GWs) are obtained from coffee grounds (CGs) treated at 2500 °C for 1 h in the presence of Ar gas at 1 atm. The majority of the GWs formed inside the CGs shell are rod-like with a conical tip with diameter and length in the range between 1 to 3 µm and 4 to 10 µm respectively. At

The complete oxidation of nuclear graphite waste via

 · The fundamentals behind the thermal treatment process and graphite oxidation have been discussed extensively elsewhere .The precise chemical steps involved in the removal of carbon to the gas phase through oxidation are still uncertain with various multi-step and single step mechanisms proposed in the literature .Fundamentally the reaction can be considered to proceed via one of

Thermal oxidation of nuclear graphite A large scale waste

 · graphite waste is believed to be the single largest volume waste stream in the UK inventory 9 . Another possible approach for graphite could be large scale gasification under optimum conditions graphite is known to readily oxidise to the gas phase i.e. gasification the topic of

Making H2 and graphite from methaneChemical Engineering

 · Sydney University s Laboratory for Sustainable Technology (Sydney Australia sydney.edu ) and the technology-commercialization-firm Hazer Group (Perth Australia hazergroup ) are collaborating to scale up the Hazer Process which uses an iron-ore catalyst to produce hydrogen and graphite from natural gas.

Treatment and Disposal of the Radioactive Graphite Waste

 · An option may be the transformation of the high-level radioactive graphite waste into low-level radioactive waste through physical and chemical processes. The current technologies involve e.g. thermal treatment to release 36 Cl capture of the 14 C from the gases of incineration of carbon material and decomposition of carbon dioxide into

Management of Waste Containing Tritium and Carbon-14

 · management of waste containing tritium and carbon-14 international atomic energy agency vienna 2004 technical reports series no. 421

The complete oxidation of nuclear graphite waste via

 · A crucial part of the process is the thermal oxidation of the graphite via a plasma furnace. Laboratory scale treatment of the graphite found the oxidation rate to increase with temperature with a significant increase in the CO/CO2 production ratio at T > 1000 °C.

Management of Waste Containing Tritium and Carbon-14

 · management of waste containing tritium and carbon-14 international atomic energy agency vienna 2004 technical reports series no. 421

Treatment of Irradiated Graphite to Meet Acceptance

 · Treatment of Irradiated Graphite to Meet Acceptance Criteria for Waste Disposal The early Soviet production reactors were very basic and serious contamination of graphite by fuel debris has occurred also a special IAEA Member State Approaches to the Graphite-Waste Issue

A short review on preparation of graphene from waste and

 · Ultrathin nature of graphene makes it an attractive candidate for water purification. It has great potential to treat real waste water. Further it has become a best candidature for photocatalysis treatment in which it acts as an electron scavenger so electron-hole recombination has been tremendously decreased.

Graphite Whiskers Derived from Waste Coffee Grounds

 · Graphite whiskers (GWs) are obtained from coffee grounds (CGs) treated at 2500 °C for 1 h in the presence of Ar gas at 1 atm. The majority of the GWs formed inside the CGs shell are rod‐like with a conical tip with diameter and length in the range between 1 to 3 µm and 4 to 10 µm respectively.

Article Worth from Waste Utilizing a Graphite Rich

from Waste Utilizing a Graphite‐Rich Fraction from Spent Moreover the nickel production was recently driven increase in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions 12 .

Effect of Microwave Treatment of Graphite on the

 · 2.2. Microwave Treatment of Graphite Raw graphite particles were treated in a microwave oven (Haier/MF-2270MG Haier Electronics Group Co. Ltd. Qingdao China) at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. The microwave oven had a maximum power of 700 W with six discrete settings. The raw graphite was placed in a sealed glass vessel that was permeable to

Making H2 and graphite from methaneChemical Engineering

 · Sydney University s Laboratory for Sustainable Technology (Sydney Australia sydney.edu ) and the technology-commercialization-firm Hazer Group (Perth Australia hazergroup ) are collaborating to scale up the Hazer Process which uses an iron-ore catalyst to produce hydrogen and graphite from natural gas.

Graphite Quencher Graphite Quenches Quenching

 · The application industry can be production of potassium sulfate by mannheim process hazardous waste incineration containing fluorine and chlorine flue gas waste plastic incineration etc. Graphite quenchers are a perfect choice for treatment of aggressive gas components such as hazardous waste incineration containing fluorine and chlorine.

TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF

 · Windscale Pile 1 graphite under a wide range of conditions from wasteform production to disposal of waste packages a variable activation energy model has been developed by BNFL based on classical theory 3 4 . The development of the model is presented by BNFL in another paper at this meeting 5 and will only be briefly considered here.

Recycling of graphite anodes for the next generation of

 · Abstract Graphite is currently the state-of-the-art anode material for most of the commercial lithium ion batteries. Among different types of natural graphite flake graphite has been recently recognized as one of the critical materials due to the predicted future market growth of lithium ion batteries for vehicular applications. Current status and future demand of flake graphite in the market

Utilization of Graphite Rods from Waste Batteries to

The generation of waste batteries is increasing yearly and it is more prone to improper disposal resulting in environmental and health concerns. Treatment and handling of this waste are often costly and complex. Hence an upcycling route to turn such waste into valuable material specifically the production of graphene from graphite rods of waste batteries was explored.

High-temperature graphite purification purification

 · The graphite powder directly into a graphite crucible and heated in inert gas and freon protective gas purification furnace to 2 300-3 000 ℃ a period of time impurities in the graphite will overflow to achieve graphite purification. High-temperature method commonly used by flotation or more chemically purified 99 of the carbon-carbon

Characterization Treatment and Conditioning of

 · sources of radioactive waste graphite are reviewed in Section 2. In Section 3 the main graphite characteristics relevant to graphite waste management are presented and discussed. Section 4 is dedicated to the description and analysis of strategic approaches to radioactive graphite waste management. Particular steps for pre-disposal management

Wastewater and Wastegases TreatmentGraphite Technology

Wastewater treatment (source Wikipedia) is a process used to remove contaminants from wastewater or sewage and convert it into an effluent that can be returned to the water cycle with minimum impact on the environment or directly reused. The latter is called water reclamation because treated wastewater can be used for other purposes.

CARBOWASTE Treatment and Disposal of Irradiated Graphite

The objective of this project was the development of best practices in the retrieval treatment and disposal of irradiated graphite including other irradiated carbonaceous waste like structural material made of graphite or non-graphitised carbon bricks and fuel coatings (pyrocarbon silicon carbide).

Treatment of a forging industry graphite-rich wastewater

 · Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces. It is necessary to apply a lubricant in many cases composed by graphite and the process generate a wastewater that requires a proper treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the treatment of such effluent and characterize the sludge generated at a forging industry that recently changed in industrial process the oil-based lubricant by water-based lubricants. Initially wastewater

I-Graphite Waste Management in France ICEM ASME

 · In France about 23 000 tons of irradiated graphite waste were generated mainly from 9 nuclear gas-cooled reactors (UNGG type). All these reactors are now shut down. In France a final disposal route has been decided for i-graphite waste management by the French Parliament in 2006.

World-First Project To Turn Biogas From Sewage Into

 · West Australian renewable energy company Hazer are seeking to build a 15.8M 100 tonne per annum facility to demonstrate their proprietary hydrogen production technology which converts biogas from sewage treatment into hydrogen and graphite. The Hazer Process is an innovative technology that converts bio-methane to renewable hydrogen and